Human Capital Formation 2017-11-17T19:09:38+00:00

Human Capital Formation

Human capital refers to knowledge/skills and educational attainment. Human capital is one of the essential resources for economic growth, and educated workers are critical sources of innovation and productivity, especially given the pace and nature of technological progress. Higher levels of human capital are also correlated to higher earnings and greater likelihood of employment. For example, basic math skills are important for personal and professional success.

Data for this indicator was obtained from the Census Bureau’s American Community Survey, 5-year estimates. Enrollment estimates and population were summed across the three counties to obtain the NSJV value.

This graph shows the percent of 3-4 year olds in the United States, California, and the NSJV that are enrolled in school. California school enrollment for 3-4 year olds is slightly higher than for the United States. However, the NSJV is significantly behind both geographies. Only 39.2% of 3-4 year olds in the NSJV were enrolled in school in 2014, down from 40.5% in 2010. Two possible explanations for the lower school enrollment in the NSJV is availability and cost. In other urban areas the availability of preschool could make it easier for families to send their children. Additionally, lower incomes in the NSJV can constrain the preschool options for families.

Data for this indicator was obtained the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.

This graph breakdowns school enrollment for 3-4 year olds in the United States, California, and the NSJV. Each area has a larger percentage of males enrolled in school. There is approximately a 3 percentage point difference in the enrollment between males and females for the United States and California, while there is an approximately 6.5 percentage point difference in the enrollment between males and females.

Data for this indicator was obtained from the California Department of Education. Third grade reading proficiency is measured as the percent of students who scored at least “proficient” on the CAASPP reading test.

This graph shows the percent of students in California and the NSJV component counties that met the third grade reading proficiency standards on the California Assessment of Student Performance and Progress (CAASPP) exam. In 2014-15 the CAASPP exam replaced the California Standards Test (CST) for English Language Arts so comparing these results with past years may be misleading. Students in California performed significantly better on this exam than students in the NSJV. Test scores for all regions increased between 2014-15 and 2015-16.

Data for this indicator was obtained from the California Department of Education. Third grade math proficiency is measured as the percent of students who scored at least “proficient” on the CAASPP math test.

This graph shows the percent of students in California and the NSJV component counties that met the third grade math proficiency standards on the California Assessment of Student Performance and Progress (CAASPP) exam. In 2014-15 the CAASPP exam replaced the California Standards Test (CST) for Mathematics so comparing these results with past years may be misleading. Students in California performed significantly better on this exam than students in the NSJV. Test scores for all regions were higher for both years than the third grade reading score. Additionally, all test scores increased between 2014-15 and 2015-16.

Data for this indicator was obtained from the California Department of Education. The number of graduates and total students in each cohort were summed across each county to arrive at the NSJV total.

This graph shows the graduation rates of high school students in California and the NSJV. Graduation rates have steadily increased in both California and the NSJV since 2009-10. In 2012-13 graduation rates in the NSJV overtook graduation rates in California as a whole. The most recent year for which data is available, 2014-15, saw the largest difference between the NSJV and California graduation rates.

High school graduation rates by race/ethnicity (2015)

Race/Ethnicity California Merced County San Joaquin
County
Stanislaus
County
African American/Black 72.6% 83.2% 71.9% 69.5%
American Indian/Alaska Native 73.8% 90.0% 83.7% 77.6%
Asain American 93.4% 95.1% 71.9% 89.6%
Hispanic/Latino 80.0% 87.5% 80.9% 82.3%
Multiracial 84.9% 92.2% 75.2% 87.7%
Native Haiwaiian/Pacific Islander 81.9% 92.3% 86.3% 83.6%
White 88.1% 91.9% 86.0% 86.6%

Data for this indicator was obtained from the California Department of Education’s Dataquest system.

This table shows the percent of high schoolers by race/ethnicity in California and the NSJV counties that graduate high school. There is no one county/region or race/ethnicity that universally performs better than the others. In California, San Joaquin County and Stanislaus African Americans have the lowest graduation rates. However, in Merced County Pacific Islanders have the lowest graduation rates. Asians generally have high graduation rates, although there are three races that graduate at higher rates in Stanislaus County. Asians in Merced County have the highest graduation rates of any race in any region.

Data for this indicator was obtained from the California Department of Education’s Dataquest system.

This graph shows the percent of students in California and the NSJV that meet the minimum requirements for admission to the California State University (CSU) and University of California (UC) systems. Less than half of all California and NSJV students meet the minimum standards for admission to UC/CSU programs, although the percent of California students that meet these requirements in higher than the percent of NSJV students. Despite the low readiness level, the percent of students meeting these requirements has been increasing in recent years. In 2014-15 8.8 percentage points more students in the NSJV met the minimum requirements than in 2008-09.